Plumbing Cyberspace

By K. J. Hamer-Hodges, FIEE

Increasingly, software controls life through Virtual Reality (VR) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). But abstract software is besieged by undetected malware. Furthermore, components cannot be engineered into trusted designs. The deep fakes of programmed abstractions mechanize AI, confusing and corrupting individuals and society. The illusions cover the waterfront of life, starting with hacking and global cybercrime, progressing to industrial catastrophes and, ultimately, Orwellian society.

The Boeing 737 Max is a classic example. The aircraft were all grounded for almost two years, from March 2019 through December 2020. This engineering catastrophe proved how dangerous life-supporting software becomes. Boeing put the total cost of the two deadly crashes at nearly $19 billion as its first annual loss in over two decades was reported by The Guardian in 2020. This cost does not include the losses to Boing's suppliers, clients, staff, and over 300 families suffering personnel loss. 

The aircraft software was redesigned to hide the bigger engine's weight and changed position, deliberately and selfishly taking control away from the pilots. It led to unforeseen aerodynamic conditions resulting in vertical dives, killing all aboard. Other examples exist; worse is to come as the world's dependence on AI and VR using advanced software that lacks sound engineering. Software progress rides on the back of shared, centralized computer hardware that remains unchanged, unimproved, and dangerously outdated. The problem is that computer software lacks the industrial strength of other engineered disciplines in the mold of biotechnologies and semiconductors inherited from the Industrial Age when Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace pioneered flawless computer science. 

The software cannot be trusted because programs lack clockwork digital integrity. Designers cannot confirm what they claim. Like Boeing's 737 MAX, abstraction cannot be proven true; too many assumptions exist. Some, like the shared hardware, are easily abused. Others, like centralization and superuser privileges, introduce unavoidable scientific mistakes. The centralized power system of first generation computer science is a single point of failure that permanently stains, the future with medieval baronial dictatorship that corrupt and ultimately destroy a balanced, democratic cyber society.

Centralization leads cyber society in the wrong direction, away from democracy back to centralized dictatorship. Citizens, not privileged superuser must take charge of cyberspace if we wish to avoid software domination. Software domination led to the Boeing 737 MAX deaths. It leads to undetected malware and unpunished cyber crimes. From data thefts and stolen intellectual property to well known identity theft, hacking, and Cyberwar, enemies like Russia, China, Iran, and North Korea (RCINK) are at work, intent on America's downfall by speeding centralized software in cyberspace to a dictatorial end game or untrusted AI and VR. 

Trusted, industrial-strength software is vital for a world driven by AI and VR. More specifically computers as digital machines must be engineered to detect every mistake. Fraud, forgery, malware, hacking, and centralized power cause breakdowns, enable crime and prevent software integrity. To defend society as a democracy software must be controlled scientifically, ultimately by distributing power to citizens, the rightful pilots of Cyber-democracy. The privileged skills and the centralized operating superuser make computers ideal partner in cyber-dictatorships, already in place for RCINK. But computer science, as defined by mathematics and logic is uniformly fair, equally for all, no centralization exists, no assumption are needed, no dictatorial power is built in. 

The expression a=b+c is always the same as demonstrated by the abacus for the past 4,000 years. The expression a*b=c is unchanged since the sliderule democratized Napier's logarithmic scale and when the first mechanical computer, Babbage's Thinking Machine democratized mathematical machinery to allow Ada Lovelace to build software as individual error-free, functions, flawlessly programmed as taught at school and university. This scientific solution was defined by the Church-Turing Thesis, in 1936 and it still lies dormant in the centralized, flawed binary computer. 

Indeed, the Abacus, the first industrial-strength computer that dates from Babylon and the birth of Civilization, obeys the same science. Likewise the slide rule and the Thinking Machine. In each case, integrity and industrial strength are achieved by engineering the details as a fail-safe, mathematical framework for abstract computations. 

Human inspired corruption originates from careless or crafted machine code. Human errors and deliberate misuse by programmers cause systemic malware, nefarious hackers, phishing emails that rob individuals, pervert elections, destroy presidential candidates, and subvert social media. Deep-Fakes, digital fraud, and forged media in many forms originate on Cyberspace's surface where hardware meets software. They are all rooted in the easy destruction of binary data and the silent theft of secrets from individuals, industry, government agencies, and even the NSA experts. Ransomware alone cost city governments and service providers over $140 million in the first six months of 2020. 

Everything from malware to Deep Fakes gets dramatically worse with the arrival of Artificial Intelligence. The takedown of democracy is incremental, but one massive data breach can punish several 100s of millions of innocent citizens at a time. Unregulated cybercrime is a social disaster and counterproductive, mixed with unfair privileges, society, and industry are stretched to breaking point. False news is an unresolved and evolving national nightmare spilling onto the streets of major US cities. As the crisis continues to boil, law enforcement fails, and extremists, aided by False News, allow Cyber-dictators to fill the void. 

National discontent is aggravated by the mysterious powers and fraudulent privileges in Cyberspace. Cult experts and dictatorial superusers run Cyber-society off the rails from inside Cyberspace. The emergence of AI as a superhuman force only increases and hastens an unavoidable consequence. Society is lost in the baffling fog of VR. Trusting citizens are cut adrift to search alone for Lorelei in the hope of salvation. 

The problem is far more profound than experts admit. It begins and ends as binary software touches digital hardware. These are the nuts and bolts of computer science. The lack of integrity in binary machine code leaves society helplessly exposed to digital corruption. Digital corruption is like a leaking basement. Corruption spreads like damp, mildew, and mold to make every room in Cyberspace uninhabitable.

All fraud and every case of forgery, including Deep Fakes, emanate from easy binary corruption, and the inability to guarantee binary information has not been manipulated. The unprotected binary data on a computational surface where software and hardware meet must be made both data-tight and function tight. This is the only hope for trusted computer science. The Church-Turing Thesis explains to bind data-tight and function-tight computation using the laws of the λ-calculus. 

General-purpose computers lack the modularity needed for trusted digital protection. Cyberspace is filled with leaking hulls of sinking ships, ships without water-tight compartments. Binary data is easily corrupted because the machine code is despotic and transmits infections instantly around the world. Theft, fraud, forgery, and spying all thrive in the basement of computer science. Trusted software is impossible, and the dictatorial architecture crashes because the citizens, the pilot, and co-pilots of Cyber-democracy are cut out of the loop in a software crisis. 

The nature of dictatorial machine code must change before digital integrity is achieved. A Church-Turing Machine that binds software to hardware using the laws of the λ-calculus solves the problem of a function-tight, data-tight basement using object-oriented machine code. Object-oriented software took off when Steve Jobs adopted Objective-C for his NeXt computer in circa 1985. However, it began in 1965 with Capability-based computer science refined as Object-Oriented Machine (OOM) code by the PP250 in 1972. OOM encapsulated binary machine code as data-tight and function tight, digital objects. Software errors are detected by the mathematical warning from the typed interactions between software and hardware. A λ-calculus meta-machine crosscheck for dangerous actions when data is used or changed. Digital history is protected and functionality is corroborated at every step. Any attempts by crooks, thieves, rogues, gangsters, or global enemies are detection and fraud, and forgery is prevented. When software integrity is guaranteed in computer science's binary basement, Cyber-democracy will grow and prosper forever. 

The general-purpose computer was designed after WWII when VR and AI were over the horizon. Blind trust in dubious software guarantees more civilians will die, but death is only one of the dire consequences. As Cyberwars are lost, the Cyber-titans steal America's written constitution and enslave the population. Dictatorial, proprietor, cult software takes charge by Cyber-titans' rules. Freedom is exchanged for incomprehensible best-practices needed to survive everyday life. Justice dies as the titans' software allows criminals to escape without a trace. 

General-purpose computers, filled with crime and deception, undermine America's future. Competing Cyber-titans ignore national priorities like the written constitution and three independent government branches. Instead, Apple, Google, Microsoft, and Amazon rule Cyberspace as fiefdoms to expand their global grip. Worse, these general-purpose computers allow censorship and spying on the global population. 

To stop cult dictators and corrupt henchmen trading fear for obedience, individuals must run Cyberspace as a citizens' democracy. Democratic Cyber society prevents cybercrime, keeping private data private by enforcing nature's universal computation model returning the democratic control over our collective destiny.

Nature's universal computational model is made for individual creatures, the particular instances of a species. A species is not constituted as a shared monolithic compilation. Instead, each animal has a private copy of the species blueprint as a structured DNA. The DNA replaces the centralized dictatorial operating system with modules of object-oriented machine code. The DNA defines a symbolic hierarchy of functional relationships, bound dynamically by the laws of the λ-calculus. It is a decentralized, replicated, individual approach to calculation and computation. Each individual inherits the DNA blueprint from the symbolic mathematical as a living, organic structure of types. This universal computational model is bound dynamically by the laws of the λ-calculus as incorporated in the Church-Turing Thesis (CTT). 

The CTT compares two alternative computer science methods, developed in 1936 by Alonzo Church and his postgraduate student Alan Turing. They are complementary ideas that exactly match in atomic form but differ in materials. When combined modular boundaries exist that tame the dynamic forces of wild software as programmed function abstractions. A λ-calculus meta-machine navigates the DNA to bind each function abstraction in turn to the universal thread of computation. 

Operating systems replaced the λ-calculus when they took control of computers in the formative period leading to batch processings mainframes, exemplified by the superuser invented by Unix and other time-sharing systems, as used today. 

The scientific balance between hardware and software distributes power uniformly and universally through object-oriented, capability-limited machine code. Each atomic thread of computation navigates the organized function abstractions in a DNA hierarchy—a λ-calculus meta-machine chain event variables to DNA nodes, the scientific function-abstractions of a species. Combined as a Church-Turing Machine (CTM), the playing field across networked Cyberspace is leveled. Monolithic, corrupt authorities evaporate, and crimes that orbit around unfair privileges disappear.

Unguarded binary data is the biggest threat to the future of the nation. Criminals and enemies use a binary sewer in GPC to infect virtualized life, causing problems no one sees coming; no one can prevent, and never end. Cyberwars are lost, and the written constitution is redrafted by the invisible, uncertain, obscure, and questionable workings of privileged, globally networked software. 

This is bad enough, but law and order are further distorted by enemy attacks on exposed binary data. Malware and hackers roam wild, planting ransomware as the latest form of highway robbery. Still, when artificial intelligence (A. I.) directs crimes, the sewer will overflow and flood the Cyber society. The Romans knew that plumbing is vital to a healthy community. At great expense, they flowed clean from rivers and lakes, across unbelievable aqueducts to cities, streets, and baths. The dirty water flowed out to farms and oceans. 

Software is Cyberspace's water, but without any functional plumbing, a general-purpose computer is deadly dangerous. Alonzo Church's universal model of computation flows data between software functions with the industrial-strength of mathematics to every corned a Cyber-civilization. This mathematical plumbing starts with the capability-limited, object-oriented machine code. For example, a machine code program is protected. It is read-only binary data, and while read-write binary data can change under strictly limited, functional conditions. Malware cannot hide in a CTM because it is detected and rejected at once, red-handed.  Each OOMC is processed by type-rules expressed by the object in a Church-Turing machine. These objects are once again function abstractions where the uppercase methods (LOAD, SAVE, CHANGE,  CALL, and RETURN) are firewall instructions between software modules.

  • λ-calculus Namespace (LOAD, Import, Release, Export, SAVE, Clean, Switch Namespace)
  • Computational Thread (Schedule, CHANGE, Halt, Kill, Synchronize)
  • Function Abstraction (CALL a λ-calculus Abstraction and RETURN Symbol Set)
  • Program (execute machine code)
  • Binary Data Words (read and/or write)

When these function-tight and data-tight objects are recognized by the machine code as a programmable computational framework. A λ-calculus meta-machine binds each data object to the machine to transparently limit the thread to a task. While naked binary machine code in a general-purpose computer has unlimited power, mathematical plumbing focuses on a CTM job. It detects errors in advance of any theft or damage. A CTM fights off malware and hackers case by case, on the spot. Once the undetected infection rate is reduced to zero, the software inherits the reliability of the hardware.

Patches do not limit new problems discovered as the network and functions evolve. A λ-calculus meta-machine from the Church-Turing Thesis provides the formal standards of plumbing that solves this problem. Patching, critical upgrades that remain uninstalled and major updates with incompatible changes are all avoided. Indeed all the so-called ‘best-practices’ that lead to a two-class society are removed if software types are managed by machine code. The best practices needed to sustain the proprietary systems all fall by the wayside leaving modern life plagued by infections from the open binary sewer that carries undetected and unpunished digital crimes through Cyberspace. The hidden absorption of corruption and the silent infection by malware for crimes, mixed with the secret weapons of global Cyberwar all have the unfair advantage of superuser privileges and surprise attack.

There is no science to an open digital sewer, binary machine code has no rules, and Cyber-society cannot build high or even survive on a sinking, stinking foundation. The unavoidable and unstoppable infections threaten the health of the nation and the happiness of the citizens. It is simply unacceptable, and the government is ultimately responsible. However, neither government nor the software in Cyberspace can cope with surprise ‘zero-day’ attacks. When everything is virtualized by unreliable software, only the centralized dictators who run general-purpose computer science, the henchmen, and the criminals have the upper hand. They will end America’s experiment with a citizen’s democracy, law and order, and the written constitution. Government by ‘We the People’ and three equal branches of government will degenerate to picking from a handful of global Cyber-titans who spy on the global population while they farm them like flocks of sheep.

The plain truth and the rock bottom problem is that software is water in Cyberspace. It cannot be trusted as a concrete image to work as designed. The general-purpose computer was designed before malware and hacking surfaced and lacks a hygienic system to allow the world to share a global Cyberspace in which to live and work. 

Every day, day after day, malware, hacking, and, most recently, ransomware mix with and contaminate and damage civil society's workings. Attempting to stop Cybercrimes by adding software only works if the software can recognize the signs of an impending attack. Still, the software cannot see the open binary sewers' problem, ignored by every general-purpose computer's basement. No matter how much is spent, binary sewers run down every street in the global digital village. 

Digital crimes stem from an information typing problem that is only solved by hardware type recognition and dynamic binding in machine code. The general-purpose computer treats software as linear, monolithic, indistinguishable binary data. Instead, the software must be engineered as a liquid, not a solid. Without plumbing, open sewers are unavoidable. The plumbing cannot leak and must begin where it matters most, in computer science's hardware basement on the liquid surface of computation as hardware and software fuses together. 

Digital corruption spreads when information is not recognized as liquid binary data. While this ‘liquid’ has no physical structure, there is a mathematical structure. Unfortunately, this structure is obfuscated by a compiler and ignored by the general-purpose computer. This is a mistake that was recognized by the birth of object-oriented programming. A Church-Turing Machine goes to the next and ultimate step of infallibly automating these objects as mathematical symbols bound by the laws of the λ-calculus. These binary objects hide their details as digital types, linked by names in a λ-calculus namespace. The program structure is washed out compilers but recovered by the interpretative Church-Instructions of a Church-Turing Machine. Structured object-oriented machine code navigates a directional DNA hierarchy of symbolic names that shape an application as a formal, dynamic species of type limited software components. 

The plumbing of object-oriented machine code is governed by the universal model of computation and the laws of the λ-calculus. This was side-steps in 1945 when von Neumann turned the Turing Machine into the general-purpose computer. The atoms of mathematics are named λ-calculus variables, and their movement is governed by binding rules of the λ-calculus. Not the laws of gravity like water, but the force of machine code bound dynamically by a λ-calculus meta-machine. The plumbing starts with the individual Church-Instructions bound dynamically to named objects by Capability Keys instead of statically compiled into linear memory pages. When the physical nature of a general-purpose computer is decomposed into named digital objects, computations can be scattered throughout Cyberspace, broadly speaking in the same way, a browser works but now secured and protected by the capability-limited, object-oriented machine code.

Digital pandemics thrive through unchecked infection and remote interference, while the ordinary course of life is made more complicated. Computer problems hang like fear over an innocent citizen's life, but life cannot thrive in fear. For Cyber society to blossom, the software must be trusted, and the only way to measure trust is through qualified functional components. These trusted components are the digital objects of the object-oriented machine code. System reliability is achieved in-depth and in detail by the type-qualified digital boundaries of each item as enforced by a λ-calculus meta-machine. 

For trust to grow, fear must evaporate. Therefore, the statically compiled binary images of monolithic software must be replaced by the object-oriented machine code of a Church-Turing Machine. In a Church-Turing Machine, the software is engineered like water, not like concrete. When piped and focused atomically, it works like water flowing through a Water-Mill; each function's power is maximized, precisely defined by the individual, symbols written on mathematicians chalkboard. The symbols are the atoms of software bound together by the laws of the λ-calculus that apply digital boundary types through the digital technology called Capability-Limited Addressing. 

This solution binds encapsulated digital symbols together with limited access rights defined by scientific expressions as a balanced, testable equation in the set of related equations as a coherent mathematical namespace. The implementation details of Capability-Limited Addressing are explained in my book about the PP250, the first Capability-Based computer that hit the market in 1972. Sadly, before the approach proved its full worth, the semiconductor computer killed all innovation. Backward compatibility became the computer industry's mantra, and since then, the binary machine, using von Neumann’s 1945 shared memory architecture, has hardily evolved. General-purpose computers are totally unready to meet the challenge of an A. I. driven world.

For example, the PP250 addressed centralized privileges, undetected malware, and remote hacking as a fail-safe computer for secure global communications. The plumbing starts in the basement to prevent all leaks as a data-tight, function-tight software machine. It was used for military communication by the UK Army, served in the first Gulf War, and achieved decades of calibrated software reliability. The success is atomic over monolithic because the software is controlled as a liquid instead of a solid. 

The digital plumbing of a λ-calculus meta-machine in a Church-Turing computer closes the open sewers in a general-purpose computer. Infections are detected and isolated as a malware type that causes errors. The source of each error is immediately removed from the namespace and updating the reliability of involved objects. All forms of digital corruption are healed by correcting and regenerating any unreliable items. Thus a Church-Turing Machine is like the Abacus, the slide rule, and Charles Babbage’s two mechanical computers. They all use mathematical machine code and object-oriented technology to connect the physical world to industrial-strength mathematics. The solution of a Church-Turing Machine applies the universal model of computation to keeps data private in a private individual namespace. 

In a Church-Turing Machine, Cybercrimes are caught on the spot by capability-limited addressing. Likewise, digital theft is prevented, and justice is both immediate and transparent. Sufficient to say a crude form of binary capabilities are employed every time one browses the web or uses the cloud, but these software identities are not fraud and forgery resistant. They are strings of binary characters, easily forged or sabotaged in a clickjacking attack, or hidden in a phishing email. 

Every Cybersecurity attack takes place in the gap between theory and practice. The gap exists between calibrated hardware and unreliable software. The hole in 1945 was small but is now vast, and digital crimes start, grow, and thrive in this expanding gap between good ideas and concrete implementations. The gap between theory and practice is closed by the data-tight and function tight architecture of a Church-Turing Machine.

Cybercrime is the fastest growing free enterprise globally, and together with the increasingly dangerous weapons of Cyberwar, they bring to an end American freedom, equality, and justice. For a Cyber society to thrive and blossom Cybercrime, Cyberwar must first be detected to be punished, and regulated to be stopped. Law and order of a citizen’s Cyber-democracy meet the Church-Turing Thesis standards, not a centralized dictatorship of the Cyber-titan. Closing the gap between democratic theory and institutional practice brings civil law and order to computer science. When Capability-Limited Addressing is the essence of computer science, the object-oriented machine code stabilizes the software so that Cyberspace can be trusted. Because each symbol's reliability is calibrated at run time, the weakest link is always known and quickly addressed. When protected by digital boundaries, the characters in Cyberspace are fully plumbed as typed and bound digital objects to implement individual mathematical abstractions as calibrated, insulated mathematical (digital) items.

Like everything else in the world, software, when executed in a digital form as object-oriented machine code, the programs, and data, are subordinate to mother nature. Thus, in this digital form, the digital objects obey the laws of mathematical science. It is the object-oriented digital form of machine code in a Church-Turing Machine that recognizes the liquid form of atomic software and manages binary data as types. 

Water is defined by two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, known by the shortcode H2O. A computational atom determined by both Alan Turing and Alonzo Church is a program with substituted variables. The expression can be written symbolically in many ways, but (a + b = c) is where most children start. When digital software is objectified this way, the limited type symbols match object-oriented digital units with typed limited access rights that are enforced individually. By implementing the digital boundaries, software obeys a λ-calculus meta-machine, and as with every other paramount concern, scientifically defined law and order are achieved. In a Church-Turing Machine, a λ-calculus meta-machine closes the open sewers and tames any wild rivers that flow through a global Cyber-society. 

The laws of plumbing computer science demand function-tight, data-tight computation, as expressed by the alternative sides of the Church-Turing Thesis. Since 1936 these two alternative computational mechanisms, the Turing Machine, and the λ-calculus, have been considered self-standing, diametric alternatives. This view is different. They are the two sides of a universal computation model that exists throughout the known universe as defined by nature here on earth. The atomic coin of mathematics is symbols. The mathematical theory meets the concrete implementation on the computational surface of a computer. When a computer is networked, the laws of the Church-Turing Thesis demand a Church-Turing Machine be used. When considered this way, the two alternatives mesh together, like clockwork, as the plumbing of a Church-Turing Machine. 

The symbols of the λ-calculus exactly match fraud and forgery resistant digital Capability-Keys that program the access rights of capability-based, object-oriented machine code. Now software functions compute on the high-speed rails of mathematics, precisely as taught at school. The networked rails set in a mathematical namespace are defined by the linkages between symbols in mathematical expressions. Events drive computation steps as the protected calculations of a single equation with locally substituted values for each character. The equations are chained together by Capability-Keys that define the access rights to a symbol as a directional DNA hierarchy. Every time a sign is characterized by an equation, a linkage exists in the programmable DNA. This directional DNA hierarchy dynamically defines the application's framework as a living instance of species of software. Each living instance is a protected, anatomically living creature of typed functional symbols, the type of limited digital components of a scientifically secure, mathematical namespace.

By individually implementing each symbol in any expressions, as a type of functional digital object, an object-oriented programming language engineers the laws of the λ-calculus. Dynamic binding is materialized by a λ-calculus meta-machine. The rails of computation are restricted to navigating the directional DNA hierarchy of symbols in the high order mathematical expressions. For example, The PP250, as a telecommunication computer, could evaluate the equation:

[myCall = connectTo(myMother);] 

defined by one Church-Instruction as an indivisible (incorruptible) step of object-oriented machine code. 

This Church-Instruction explicitly using three Capability-Keys, one for each symbolic name. Each symbol (myCall, connectTo, myMother) is a node in the directional DNA hierarchy of a namespace. The telecommunication objects are imported to support that application. Other applications can coexist in the namespace that belongs to an individual. All the private data to the individual can be housed in this secure, multi-function, secure namespace.

Moreover, an individual can manage another λ-calculus namespace that is shared by a society of users. Some of these might implement civil applications, for example, ‘Homeland Security,’ Wall Street Corporations, or legal entities in a City. None of these functional namespaces are overshadowed by Cyber-titans. A unique namespace is the private digital shadow of any legal entity in a Cyber-society. The namespace's peculiar directional DNA hierarchy extends the legal entity privately, safely, and securely into global Cyberspace.

Each symbol supports or implements a mathematical expression that implements Cyberspace's shared and private and civil functionality. Other namespace services are addressed by other unique Capability-Keys as the immutable symbols to access functional digital objects, both local and remote, in the Church-Turing network called Cyberspace. The public and private functions of a namespace can all be written on a chalkboard. As first demonstrated by Babbage and later documented by Lovelace, mathematical machine code survives because it implements a virtual chalkboard of infinite knowledge. 

Unlike binary data, both algorithmic and atomic security are simultaneously expressed by the chalkboard's functional symbols. The plumbing of networked Cyberspace is made both clear and complete. Each symbol, including its machine type and its scientific relationships, is checked and regulated by scientific laws of λ-calculus binding. The individual Capability-Keys and the λ-calculus meta-machine infallibly automate these scientific rules. The Church-Instruction are defined dynamically by the Capability-Keys and offer functional firewalls between the object-oriented machine code objects. The Church-Instructions transparently navigate threads of computation through the namespace's symbols organized by the directional DNA hierarchy. Every digital movement, in, among, and between symbols is verified and validated in advance by the capability-limited addressing that shelters the object-oriented machine code. Errors are detected on-the-spot. The type-safe digital boundaries prevent harm by enforcing atomic justice, equality for all.

Prosperity and security are achieved by the flawless, infallible automation of computer science as pure mathematics. By taming any wild forces in Cyberspace conflict, free progress is achieved. Civilization began when artists, scientists, and engineers, work together to build a better life. Strong walls and locked doors guarded the beautiful Ishtar Gate to enter Babylon. Here, the Abacus's beauty, the first infallible machine, flawlessly simplified addition and subtraction for traders in markets throughout the world. 

These computer science pioneers secured the atomic structure of functional decimal numbers as a handful of beads on each Abacus rail. The abstraction of four fingers representing the number 1 and a thumb representing the number 5, counts from zero to nine while the rails can scale to any chosen size. By enforcing the liquid structure of a decimal number in a solid wooden framework, anyone learns to add and subtract without any special proprietary skills as are needed by a general-purpose computer that lacks a computational framework that maps from the theory to the practice.

The industrial strength of the Abacus correctly supports decimal arithmetic. The simplified machine is accepted worldwide and endures forever. The decimal structure never changes, and thus the Abacus lasts flawlessly into an endless future. The in-depth and detailed mathematical framework serves arithmetic and every member of society equally, consistently, and faithfully.

Conversely, monolithic software compiled for a general-purpose computer is a proprietary. Each compilation creates a one-off binary build. Each build must be exhaustively tested. However and devoid of any external source of corruption, only possible for isolated mainframes. The lack of a programmable framework to keep computation on track exposes the binary details that allow criminals and hackers to attack the fluid binary image protected as a solid without plumbing. 

Without a computational structure interred deep in the machine code, industrial-strength cannot be achieved. Without physical resistance, hackers and criminals simply reach across the digital network to raid, attack, and destroy their chosen targets. Without on-the-spot detection, criminals, hackers, and enemies stretch their attacks far and wide, using unprotected binary machine code to achieve their goal.

The cost required to defend general-purpose computers from remote attacks is never-ending, and conversely, the productivity gain in fixing the exposure is incalculable. The benefit to society and the nation accumulate forever and removes the fear hanging over life. The attempts to fix the problem with networked software always fail, cost far more than can be afforded, and cannot be sustained by innocent civilians. Furthermore, encryption, the favorite solution of the Cyber-titans, only protects data in a static state. At the same time, the fight on the surface of Cyberspace is dynamic, incompatible with encryption.  

The architectural problem with the general-purpose computer is an inadequate framework for computation. Monolithic compilations lack essential digital boundaries to detect and reject digital corruption. When code is downloaded from a tainted server, it becomes a spanner dropped into the works. It results in undetected and unconstrained errors that crash the life-supporting application of a democratic society. Attackers just take advantage of the assumption of blind trust regarding the open binary sewers in every general-purpose computer. Blind faith was only adequate after WW2 when everything, including the software, was homegrown. John von Neumann and other inventors and followers defined the cults of general-purpose computer science. 

Attacks remain undetected by a general-purpose computer for weeks, months, even years before a crime is reported, typically by the press. The offenses seldom, if ever, result in an arrest or punishment. Consider the 448-page Report on the Investigation into Russian Interference in the 2016 Presidential Election. It was released by the DOJ in April 2019, four or five years after the attack. Special Counsel Robert S. Mueller, III explains how Hillary Clinton’s election team was hacked as early as April 2015. Hundreds of thousands of documents were stolen by the GRU in Russia. Many were published on Wiki Leaks. Despite this attack's scale and significance, it took years to identify, investigate, and document. It cost over thirty million dollars with no constructive end. 

This is only one of many corresponding attacks that succeed every day. Cybersociety fails when tormented by unresolved strife. The example proves three critical things. First, it is easy to send hundreds or thousands of ‘spearphishing’ emails to target individuals. After one hasty click and malware is installed. Second, the lack of on-the-spot substantially escalates the consequences. Third, the time, cost, and effort to followup and prosecute each loss is overwhelming. 

Social media is filled with crimes that distort digital data to achieve some devious end. The most insidious example is called Deep Fakes. It uses A. I. to forge and fraudulently misrepresent others' speech and opinion, the more famous, the better. Only when private data is reliably watermarked will this problem be tamed. It is another case of in-depth and detailed plumbing. The plumbing hardware of capability-limited addressing includes a watermark by origin namespace, date, and time to immediately identify fraud and forgery in Cyberspace. Rapid error detection avoids data loss and prevents any follow on attacks using the stolen data, be they security credentials or video images. 

The technology of capability limited addressing was proposed in 1965 at MIT by Jack Dennis. It was soon deployed for high-reliability global communications networks where the PP250 used object-oriented machine code as flawlessly as Babbage’s infallible mechanical engines. The built-in type checking performed by a λ-calculus meta-machine code kept the software on track. Data-tight and function tight error detection prevents data theft and limits internal digital corruption to one mathematical symbol at a time. Significantly, object-oriented machine code goes far further by decoupling functionality from computation and thereby reversing the slide into a Cyber-dictatorship clarifying ownership through watermark tracking on critical data to prevent fraud and forgery. 

Using Capability-Keys places the immutable digital tokens of mathematical power through functionality and private information into the individual user's hands. Thus the Capability-Keys reverses and deconstructs the centralizer architecture of the general-purpose computer. This is the framework for a citizen's democracy in Cyberspace. As a functional media secure Cyber-society, every aspect of society is liberated. 

Critically, untrained, wholly unskilled civilians can learn to write fail-safe, flawless software the same way taught at school. Programs that detect errors on-contact. Second, no obscure, skilled best-practices are needed to write programs that remain safe. The software is flawless, infallibly automated to the standards of Charles Babbage. Third, every civil abstraction that matters to society can exist secure in Cyberspace in ways that can never be undermined or bypassed. For example, a gold chain is a badge of office ruling over some functions such as a city mayor. The set of mayoral authorities is valid for a while. The local community rules the time-bound to the abstract media machine used by the mayor.